Study Methodology

The ESEM is a biannual online survey that collects data through the Qualtrics survey platform. Promoted by Euclid Network, the project consortium and 15 (inter)national outreach partners, the ESEM is targeted towards social enterprises located in participating European countries. After the survey closes, national datasets are cleaned in collaboration with country research partners and collated into a final European dataset.

Standard data cleaning procedures are followed in this process, including the removal of incomplete responses (classified as not meeting the 80% completion threshold, not counting country-specific questions), duplicates (as identified by IP address and personal information) and test responses.

The study’s key filtering criterion is a question on the relative prioritisation of social/environmental impact and financial return/interests in strategic decision making – those respondents prioritising impact equivalent to or greater than financial return are categorised, for the purposes of the study, as social enterprises and included in the final dataset. Those respondents prioritising financial return over impact are removed. However, based on specific details of various country contexts and the expertise of national partners, some respondents not meeting this criteria have been reincluded in past ESEM datasets when adequate justification was given. For further details on the study’s methodology, please see the Methodology sections of the previous ESEM reports.

Please note that ESEM data, which is based on the perceptions of respondents, cannot be taken as fully representative of the state of social enterprise either within any of the participating countries or across Europe as a whole.

Survey Privacy Policy

All survey data is treated confidently, and only aggregated information (no individual answers) is published. All data is stored on European servers, and is only used for the purposes and shared with the partners which respondents have explicitly agreed to. All parties engaging with the data are responsible for its protection and must sign data-sharing agreements to this end. While some personal information is collected through the survey, it is not required and respondents can request at any time that it be altered or deleted, simply by contacting

Consent for data usage, as indicated by agreement with the privacy policy before beginning the survey, can be revoked at any time. For more details, please download the full survey privacy policy or contact with any questions.


In 2020 Euclid Network initiated the European Social Enterprise Monitor (ESEM) in collaboration with its members and partners.

Meet The Team

Meet the incredible European network of people involved in the European Social Enterprise Monitor project.


Learn more about the ESEM project, its methodology, data usage and how to get involved.

Start typing and press Enter to search